Dietary reference intakes are values used primarily to assess and plan diets and do not address amounts proposed for optimal health. In some circumstances (folate and vitamins D and E, for example), dietary reference intakes were increased to reflect new knowledge about vitamins and health. A daily multivitamin and mineral supplement with rational levels of these nutrients is safe for nearly everyone. Advice to patients about vitamin supplements should incorporate individual risk assessment so that appropriate choices are made. Recommended intake, upper levels, food sources, and health benefits of selected vitamins are shown in Table 1.